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Agriculture For Beginners

Agriculture for Beginners

Getting ready for winter


Since its first publication "Agriculture for Beginners" has found a welcome in thousands of schools and homes. Naturally many suggestions as to changes, additions, and other improvements have reached its authors. Naturally, too, the authors have busied themselves in devising methods to add to the effectiveness of the book. Some additions have been made almost every year since the book was published. To embody all these changes and helpful suggestions into a strictly unified volume; to add some further topics and sections; to bring all farm practices up to the ideals of to-day; to include the most recent teaching of scientific investigators—these were the objects sought in the thorough revision which has just been given the book. The authors hope and think that the remaking of the book has added to its usefulness and attractiveness.

They believe now, as they believed before, that there is no line of separation between the science of agriculture and the practical art of agriculture. They are assured by the success of this book that agriculture is eminently a teachable subject. They see no difference between teaching the child the fundamental principles of farming and teaching the same child the fundamental truths of arithmetic, geography, or grammar. They hold that a youth should be trained for the farm just as carefully as he is trained for any other occupation, and that it is unreasonable to expect him to succeed without training.

If they are right in these views, the training must begin in the public schools. This is true for two reasons:

1. It is universally admitted that aptitudes are developed, tastes acquired, and life habits formed during the years that a child is in the public school. Hence, during these important years every child intended for the farm should be taught to know and love nature, should be led to form habits of observation, and should be required to begin a study of those great laws upon which agriculture is based. A training like this goes far toward making his life-work profitable and delightful.

2. Most boys and girls reared on a farm get no educational training except that given in the public schools. If, then, the truths that unlock the doors of nature are not taught in the public schools, nature and nature's laws will always be hid in night to a majority of our bread-winners. They must still in ignorance and hopeless drudgery tear their bread from a reluctant soil.

[01] The Soil Origin Of The Soil
Agriculture For Beginners
01 The Soil Origin Of The Soil
02 All Alike Are Fed On What Grows In This Thin Layer Of Soil
03 How Was This Rock Changed Into Workable Soil
04 Heat And Cold Are Working Partners
05 Running Water Was Another Giant Soil-former
06 Tillage Of The Soil
09 The Moisture Of The Soil
12 How The Water Rises In The Soil
15 2 It Makes The Surface Soil
18 Sandy Soils With Sandy Subsoils do Not Often Need Drainage
21 Improving The Soil
24 Let Us Not Lose Every Whit Of Our Labor
27 The Second Way Is To Adopt Rotation Of Crops
30 Manuring The Soil
33 In Left Top Pot, No Plant Food In Left Bottom Pot, Plant Food Scanty In Both Right Pots, All Elements Of Plant Food Present
36 Where It Is Found In Several Forms
39 Delicate Root-hairs Are Then Broken Off
42 How The Plant Feeds From The Soil
45 A Root-hair Acts In Much The Same Way As The Tube In Our Experiment
48 Where It Can Be Used By Other Crops
51 The Rotation Of Crops
54 By Finding Out What Element Has Here Been Exhausted
57 An Illustration Of Crop-rotation
60 Not a Particle Is Gathered By The Roots
63 The Sap Current
66 It Is Then The General Law
69 Let Us See What a Flower Really Is
72 And Little Or None Is Received On The Stigmas Below
75 Pollination
78 Exclude Insect Visitors From Some Flower
81 Sometimes We Can Breed One Kind Of Plant On Another
84 It Often Happens That a Plant Will Be More Fruitful When Pollinated
87 In Growing Plants From Cuttings
90 Cuttings May Be Taken From Various Parts Of The Plant
93 Grafts And Buds Are Really Cuttings Which
96 Sweet-potato Plants Are Produced From Shoots
99 For It Occasionally Leads To Improvement
102 Plant Seeding
105 The Selection Of Seed From Those Plants Bearing The Most Seed
108 In The Fall Sow These Selected Seeds In Area B
111 It Often Happens That a Single Plant In a Crop Of Corn
114 Selecting Seed Corn
117 This Resemblance Of Offspring To Parent Is Known
120 Experiment
123 Is Called An Annual And Is One Of The Easiest Weeds To Destroy
126 Weeds do Injury In Numerous Ways
129 Dealers Who Are Not Honest Often Sell Old Seeds
132 And This Impurity Was Mainly Of Weed Seeds
135 How To Raise a Fruit Tree
138 The Magnum Bonum Is a Great Favorite As a Fall Apple
141 Cut The Scion And Stock As Shown In Fig
144 And As Many Other Varieties Of Apples As You Wish
147 The Best Time To do Budding Is During The Summer Or Fall Months
150 The Difference Between The Trees Shown In Figs
153 Pruning That Leaves Large Limbs Branching
156 At The End Of The Year They Are Taken Up And Sorted
159 The Word Gardening Is Generally Given To That
162 Is Complete Without Some Glass Sashes
165 A Thermometer Is Stuck Into The Soil And Closely Watched
168 While The Hotbed May Be Used For Starting Plants
171 But If Corn Be Covered So Deep
174 On The Other Hand It Often Happens
177 Not Only Must The Gardener Grow Perfect Vegetables
180 In The Following Spring The Young Shoots Must Be Well Cultivated
183 Early Cabbages Need Heavy Applications Of Manure
186 Celery Is Usually Grown In Beds
189 Although Cucumbers And Cantaloupes Are Very Different Plants
192 After The Warm Weather Has Fully Set In
195 In The South The Sets May Be Planted In September
198 Tomatoes There Is No Vegetable Grown That
201 Tomatoes Require a Rich Soil Scattering A
204 This Is Done To Make Them Branch More Freely
207 Do Not Disfigure a Lawn By Placing a Bed Of Flowers In It
210 The Gladiolus And The Caladium
213 In Growing Annual Plants From Seed
216 In This Class We Find Begonias
219 A Light Cover Of Pine Leaves Will Prevent Damage From Frost
222 Of Perennials Select Bleeding-hearts
225 The Window-garden May Vary In Size From An
228 The Cause And Nature Of Plant Disease
231 It Was This That Caused The Apple To Decay
234 That Like Produces Like Even Among Molds
237 Just As The Fungus Studied Above Lives In The Apple Or Bread
240 Exercise
243 When You See Any Decaying Matter You May
246 Prevention Of Plant Disease
249 This Disease Is Caused By Bacteria
252 Yet Our Country Loses Greatly By This Disease Each Year
255 This Black Dust Consists Of The Spores Of a Tiny Fungous Plant
258 Mix This With Three Gallons Of Water
261 The Blight Is Another Serious Disease Of The Potato
264 Club Root Is a Disease Of The Cabbage
267 Insects In General
270 Therefore These do Not Belong To The True Insects
273 The Egg Hatches Into a Worm-like Animal Known As a Grub
276 Insects Lay Many Eggs And Reproduce With Remarkable Rapidity
279 Orchard Insects
282 Thus One Spraying Serves Against Both Fungi And Insects
285 Fowls In The Orchard do Good By Capturing
288 In Early Summer The Larvæ Burrow Within The Earth And Pupate There
291 Encourage The Chickadee And All Other Birds
294 161 You See The Effect Of The Peach-tree Borer S Activity
297 Watch The Curculio Lay Her Eggs In The Plums
300 But We Can Diminish It Somewhat By Good Clean Agriculture
303 Poisons Therefore do Not Avail
306 The Flea-beetle Inflicts Much Damage On The Potato
309 Burn All Stubble And Trash During July And August
312 Exercise
315 Sometimes They Go Down Into Holes In The Ground
318 This Weevil Is Proving Very Hard To Destroy
321 Farm Crops
324 Cotton
327 This Development Has Been Very Rapid
330 This Deep Plowing Not Only Allows The Tap-root To Penetrate
333 The Rows Should Be From Three To Four Feet Apart
336 If Commercial Fertilizers Are Used
339 Tobacco
342 The Time Required For Sprouting Is From Two To Three Weeks
345 Wheat
348 They Are Summer-cultivated Crops
351 The Tubercles On The Pea Or Clover Roots Will Furnish That
354 Corn
357 The Seed For This Crop Should Be Selected
360 Deep Culture Of Corn Is Not Advisable
363 Peanuts
366 Sweet Potatoes
369 Potatoes Should Not Follow a Sod
372 White, Or Irish, Potatoes
375 As a Rule Consumers Prefer a Smooth
378 Oats
381 The Seeds Should Be Covered From One And a Half To Two Inches Deep
384 And The Kernels Will Be Plump And Full
387 The Winter Type Is Chiefly Grown In This Country
390 Barley Is One Of The Oldest Crops Known To Man.
393 Barley Should Not Be Grown Continuously On The Same Land
396 These Beets do Well In a Great Variety Of Soils If The Land Is Rich
399 The Mature Beets Are Richer In Sugar Than The Immature
402 Is From One To Two Inches In Thickness
405 When Properly Fertilized And Worked
408 Hemp And Flax
411 At The Rate Of From Two To Three Pecks An Acre
414 Buckwheat
417 Rice
420 The Timber Crop
423 Insects Of Many Kinds Prey On The Trees
426 Lay Off The Garden Spot In The Form Of a Square
429 To Enrich The Soil By The Action Of The Air
432 In Planting For a Pasture The Aim Should
435 In Case Land Has To Be Plowed For Grass-seeding
438 If Grass Be Allowed To Go To Seed
441 On Page 24 You Learned That Phosphoric Acid
444 Alfalfa Is Primarily a Hay Crop
447 Before The Seeds Are Sowed The Soil Should Be Mellowed
450 Usually Does Best When Seeded Alone
453 The Cowpea Is An Excellent Soil-enricher
456 The Cowpea Will Grow In Almost Any Soil
459 When Cowpeas Are Grown For Their Pods To Ripen
462 And Wherever The Climate Permits This Custom Should Be Followed
465 In Northern Climates Early Spring Sowing Is Found Most Satisfactory
468 While There Are a Large Number Of Varieties Of The Soy Bean
471 As Soy Beans Are Grown For Hay And Also For Seed
474 Domestic Animals
477 When The Animal Is Used By Man For Food
480 Mare S Milk And The Flesh Of The Horse Are Used For Food
483 There Is a Marked Difference In The Form And Type Of These Horses
486 Every Man Who Is To Deal With Horses Ought To Become
489 The Horse Should Be Groomed Every Day
492 Cattle
495 The Dairy Cow Is Widely Different From The Beef Cow
498 Since The Best Qualities Are Not Fixed In Them
501 Sheep
504 The First Group Is Grown Principally For Wool
507 Meat Can Be More Cheaply Obtained From Hogs
510 We Have Several Breeds Of Swine
513 Hens Of Course Produce Most Of Our Eggs
516 The Leading Duck Breeds Are The Pekin
519 Bee Culture
522 Such a Colony Will Cost More At The Outset Than An Ordinary Colony
525 In Spraying Fruit Trees To Prevent Disease You
528 Why We Feed Animals
531 You Have Seen Protein Compounds Like The White Of An Egg
534 Farm Animals Require The Vitamins Also
537 The Dairy Cow
540 Now Test One Or Two Commonly Used Rations By These Rules
543 If You Are Not Following a Balanced Ration
546 The Following Table Shows The Composition Of Each
549 Cream Is Simply a Mixture Of Butter-fat And Milk
552 The Butter So Churned Is Now Ready To Be Salted
555 How Milk Sours
558 The First Few Streams From Each Teat Should Be Thrown Away
561 In 1890 Dr S M
564 Treat All The Samples Precisely As You Did The First
567 Exercise
570 The Crops Best Suited To Our Soil And Climate
573 The Crops That Will Give Us The Most Protein
576 Farm Tools And Machines
579 Liming The Land
582 Too Much Must Not Be Expected Of Lime
585 Four Forms Of Lime Are Used On Land
588 Birds
591 The Third Class Is Known As The Hard-billed Birds
594 These Little Feathered Neighbors Are
597 Think Out Carefully What Materials To Provide For Them
600 The Soil In This Section Is As a Rule Very Fertile
603 Some Crops Need a Little Different Management In Dry-farming
606 Artesian Wells Are Used In Some Parts Of The Country
609 The Latter Plan Is The Cheaper
612 Life In The Country
615 But As Long As Grass And Flowers And Vines And Trees Grow
618 Build Towns And Cities Out Of The Wreck Of Country Homes
621 For Fungous Diseases
624 Use For Both Fungi And Insects On Apple
627 Sprays For Both Fungous And Insect Pests
630 Glossary
633 Biennial a Plant That Produces Seed During
636 A Chemical Often Used To Kill Or Prevent The Growth Of Germs
639 Croup The Top Of The Hips
642 Land Is Said To Be Fertile When It Produces Well
645 A Seed Germinates When It Begins To Grow
648 The Result Of Breeding Two Different Kinds Of Plants Together
651 An Earthy Mixture Of Clay And Sand With Organic Matter
654 Substances Made Through The Growth Of Plants Or Animals
657 To Cause Plants Or Animals To Increase In Number
660 A Young Plant Just From The Seed
663 Stover As Used In This Book The
666 A Soil Which Has Never Been Cultivated
669 Safety Warning
670 How To Cite Our Website


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